The black Bengal goat is a popular goat breed, and they are found in Bangladesh, West Bengal, Assam, and Adjoining areas In India. The species have been important domestic animals in many countries for thousands of years. Goats can be profitably utilized to browse plants into milk and meat. Black Bengal goat is known for excellent mutton quality. The skin is comparatively superior to other breeds.
Importance of Black Bengal Goat
Black Bengal goat is the most popular and economic goat breeds in South Asia, especially in Bangladesh and India. The economic importance of the breed are as follows:
- The primary significance of goats for the production of good meat, milk, fiber, and skin.
- The skin is significantly superior to other breeds of the goat.
- The species is famous for an excellent mutton quality producer.
- The demand for meat is more than supply, which has resulted in very high prices for the meat and living goats.
- Black Bengal goats are highly sought after in the leather trade.
Origin of the Black Bengal Goat Breed
In Bangladesh, more than 90% of the goats are of the Black Bengal goat. The Black Bengal goat breed is found throughout Bangladesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, and Odisha. It is a small meat and dairy goat.
Physical Characteristics of Bengal Goat
The breed is dark black or sometimes white or spotted, and it is also brown or grey. They are short-legged, compact animals with a deep body and broad chest and a straight back. Their skin is of excellent quality and superior to other breeds. The goat is small in size, but its body structure is tight.
Sexual Maturity and Kid Production Rate
They are very popular in Bangladesh because of their low demand for feed and high kid production. The breeds are profile breeders and commonly have twins. Two kidding are possible in a year. The female goat becomes pregnant twice a year and gives birth to one to three kids. They are gain sexual maturity at an earlier age than most other breeds.
Bodyweight and the Lifespan
They are small in size, but their structure is tight. An adult male goat weights about 25 to 30 kg, and the average female weight is 20 to 25 kg. The goat can adapt to any environment quickly, and its disease resistance is very high. The average lifespan is 8-10 years.
Milk Production of Bengal Goats
The goat is an ideal milk and meat animal for rural people because of its lower money inputs and relatively better returns. The Black Bengal goat’s milk production capacity is inadequate, and sometimes kids may require additional milk supply during the early stages of growth.
Breeding Management of the Goat
Sexual maturity of the breed is achieved at 4 to 6 months of age. Still, management practices are often designed to delay mating until the does are near to mature bodyweight so that pregnancy does not coincide with the period when the does are actively growing. Therefore, the tendency is to mate at about 12 months so that the lay kid at 18 months.
General System of Management of Bengal Goats
The system of management of Black Bengal goat into five methods are:
- Village System: Village systems of feeding are two categories: one is tethering, where one to five heads are involved in situations where there is intensive cultivation, and the second alternative is to feed in situ the various crop residues available.
- Extensive System: Extensive grazing is common for access to common grazing and marginal land, using family labor involving mainly women and children.
- Semi-intensive System: The semi-intensive system is a compromise between the extensive and intensive courses. Limited grazing or stall feeding is practiced depending on time, labor, and feeds.
- Very Intensive System: It is a system that favors those situations where land is limited, but these exist abundant supplies of crop residues and agro-industrial by-products. Probably because of the high capital investment, the system has not been adequately used.
- Integration with Cropping Systems: This system is widespread in the tropics’ humid and sub-humid regions, where there is intensive crop production. It is closely associated with crop production patterns, notably tree crops such as coconuts, rubber, and oil palm.
The Housing of Bengal Goat
You must design an economical house for your goats. They require a tiny place in comparison to other goat breeds. The Black Bengal goat house’s necessities and to provide shelter, plenty of fresh air, and protection from rain, humidity, and predators.
Feeding of Black Bengal Goats
The production of meat and milk is inadequate in the Black Bengal and non-descriptive goats because systematic efforts have not been made to feed and breed properly. A variety of feeds are used throughout the tropics and sub-tropics. The common pasture and forages grasses you should have to include in the humid tropics are Guinea, Napier, Pangola, etc. and the dry tropics are buffel, Columbus, markarikari, etc.
A large number of trees leaves you to have used to provide variety and meet nutrient requirements for production. These include acacia, baphia, banana, cassava, etc. Concentrate feed is handy for your goats, and it can be made up of grains and protein-rich meal. A concentrated feed should be about 15 % protein.
Final Advice on Bengal Goats
Bengal goats are famous for their meat quality and skin. The meat of Bengal goat is most palatable, tasty, and contains fewer intra-muscular fats. They are highly prolific and can give birth to 4-8 kids in a year. The rearing of the goats helps in poverty elevation in the rural areas in Bangladesh and India. This goat farming also contributes to women’s empowerment and income generation for the family. The milk also provides nutrition to the family members.