Home Horse Everything About Equine Infectious Anemia for Horse Owner

Everything About Equine Infectious Anemia for Horse Owner

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) occurs in horse population worldwide is characterized by antigenic variability of the causal viruses and by persistent infection. Affected animal remains viraemic and often suffer irregularly recurring episodes of horse disease. They become lifelong carriers of the virus. EIA is sometimes known to as “Swamp Fever” as most outbreaks occur in warm wet areas where hematophagous insects which transmit the virus are abundant.

Etiology of EIA


The EIA virus belongs to the retroviridae family which includes The human T-Lymphocytic virus (HTLV) and the Human Immunodeficiency virus(HIV) or AIDS virus. It is a Lentivirus and like other members of this sub-family such as Maedi Visna virus and Caprine Arthritis virus. It is associated with persistent, debilitating infections.

Epidemiology of Equine Infectious Anemia


EIA was first described in France in 1843 and has subsequently been reported in horses, mules, and donkeys, in Asia, Africa, North and South America, Australia, and occasionally in many Europian countries including the UK, France, and Italy. Several outbreaks have been recorded in serum production horses.

Equine Infectious AnemiaThe virus is mechanically transmitted by biting flies or by contaminated needles, teeth rasps, stomach tubes and any other instruments which may cause abrasion. Horse flies, deer flies, stable flies, and mosquitos transmit the virus because of their large mouthparts; horse flies are the most effective vectors of EIA.

Equine Infectious Anemia vectorsThe disease mostly occurs during the summer and autumn, in marshy areas and river valleys.  The virus may transmit transplacentally if the mare is a carrier. The foal may be affected after birth through colostrum of its mother.

Clinical Signs of EIA


The disease may take an acute, chronic or sub-clinical course. The incubation varies from a few days to more than three months. The critical clinical signs are

  • Fever.
  • Edema of the depended parts.
  • Hemorrhagic diarrhea.
  • Jaundice.
  • Petechial hemorrhage on the mucous membranes.
  • Anemia.
  • Death

Clinical Signs of EIAThe clinical Symptoms of the Chronic Forms are as follows:

  • Progressive anemia.
  • Loss of condition.
  • Weakness.
  • Tachycardia after exercise

Pathogenesis of Equine Infectious Anemia


The periodic nature of EIA appears to be due to antigenic changes of the surface glycoprotein of the virus and the regular release of new strains which evade the host immune system. In general, there is no cross-neutralization between different variants. When a new option is released, there is some delay before the horse adopts and produces antibodies which neutralize the virus.

Postmortem Lesions of EIA


The gross lesion is commonly seen include:

  • Enlargement of the liver with accentuated lobular structure.
  • Enlargement of the spleen.
  • Lymphadenopathy.
  • Anemia.
  • Jaundice.
  • Emaciation.
  • Edema.
  • Serosal Hemorrhages

Diagnosis of Equine Infectious Anemia


Diagnosis of Equine Infectious AnemiaHematological tests such as Platelet counts, a differential white blood cell count, the determination of Packed cell Volume and a Sedaroleukocyte count may be helpful indicators in EIA diagnosis but are not pathognomonic. Other diagnostic measures are ELISA, Coggins Test in many countries to diagnose EIA.

Treatment, Management, and Control of EIA


The antigenic variation of the virus present a significant obstacle to the development of an efficacious vaccine. No vaccine of proven efficacy is currently available.

Blood transfusion and fluid therapy may assist in recovery from clinical disease, but there is no effective means of eliminating EIA virus from an infected horse.

The prevention of EIA is based primarily on the detection of infected horses by the Coggins test and their isolation from other horses.

Since infected horses are the only known reservoir of the virus, it is entirely feasible to eradicate from an area by testing and slaughter of reactors.

Control of vectors by drainage of swampy areas and by the strategic use of insecticides may help to reduce the further infection of the disease.

 

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Latest Post

Fjord Horse: Most Important Information for Horse Lover

Fjord or Norwegian Fjord Horse is a small draft horse breeds that originated in the mountainous region of Western...

Rabies in Cats: Causes, Transmission, Signs, Diagnosis, and Prevention

Rabies in cats or feline rabies infection is a viral disease that is worldwide important and affects the brain...

Potomac Horse Fever: Causes, Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Potomac Horse Fever (PHF) is an equine disease that occurs only in the summer and autumn and is most...

Falabella Horse: Most Interesting Facts For Horse Lovers

Falabella is one of the rarest and smallest horse breeds of the world under the miniature family. The horse's...

Editors' Pick

15 Most Essential Horse Information For Horse Owner

Horses are one of the mysterious creature of Almighty for humanity in this world. The horses are one of...

Potomac Horse Fever: Causes, Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Potomac Horse Fever (PHF) is an equine disease that occurs only in the summer and autumn and is most...

40 Points on Vesicular Stomatitis in Horses for Horse Owner

Vesicular stomatitis in Horses is characterized by the development of vesicles on the feet and mouth. In horses, it...

Appaloosa Horse: 11 Most Important Facts You Must Know

Appaloosa horse is one of the most famous horses to horse lovers due to their striking color and pattern....

Editors' Pick